Posts

Stress Is Not Stress Is Not Stress – There Are Differences in Performance

Stress enhances performance. Only up to a point though, then it degrades and destroys performance after it peaks.

If you have experience in any competitive endeavors or regular exposure to situations where there are meaningful stakes on the line, you have experienced this first-hand.

Most people understand stress as something purely negative. It is bad, end of story. However, that’s not the end of the story. Stress, in terms of our experience of it and its effect on us, can be good or bad. What is bad for us – for our performance, our physiological and psychological well-being, everything good we want – is chronic, unabated stress.

This is where it’s important to make distinctions. Words matter. Our terminology matters.

Physiologically and psychologically, stress is really arousal. Your body and your mind experience different states of arousal.

When certain factors are present – external stimuli or self-generated stimuli – your body and your mind prepare for action.

When that arousal enhances your performance, we can call that eustress.

When that arousal degrades or destroys your performance, we can call that distress.

There is value in differentiating between positive stress – eustress – and negative stress – distress. We want to take advantage of one and avoid the other as much as possible.

Perceived Threat, Physical or Psychological

Our bodies and our minds react to perceived threats. You’ve heard of the fight-or-flight response – or more accurately, the fight-or-flight-or-freeze response – and that is the most obvious manifestation of whole-body response to a perceived threat.

When you perceive that something threatens what you hold dear – be it your life, the lives of others, your career, your reputation, your money, the integrity of your body, any number of things – your brain sets off a cascade of biochemical and physiological changes.

This isn’t like turning a light bulb on or off. There are gradations, depending on the seriousness and immediacy of the perceived threat. It’s like a light bulb with a dimmer switch.

When arousal increases, your body prepares for action. Heart rate goes up to pump oxygenated blood to your muscles and brain. Blood vessels in your voluntary muscles dilate, surface blood vessels and those serving your core organs constrict to direct oxygenated blood to where it’s needed immediately. Your perceptive processes speed up, your sensory centers actively process more of the stimuli you perceive – especially with your visual cortex and what you see. Your body releases cortisol and adrenaline to enhance immediate performance.

You might get a little of this. You might get a lot of this.

It might be eustress. It might be distress.

It all depends on the perceived severity and immediacy of the threat.

An unstable person shouting and screaming on the street half a block away rates a slight uptick in arousal. An unstable person shouting and screaming in your face rates a significantly greater increase in arousal.

Stress is Good, Then Bad

Your body and mind’s responses to perceived threats prime you for action. The stronger the arousal response, the more your body and mind are set to defend your life with focused attention and powerful gross motor movements.

That, however, is often not what we want for the kinds of situations we are responding to professionally. Constricted attention – actual and psychological tunnel vision – is usually undesirable even when we have a life-or-death situation to resolve. Preparation for powerful gross motor movements at the expense of fine motor control is also usually undesirable.

In many studies on the relationship between arousal and performance, we use heart rate as the proxy measurement for level of arousal. The higher heart rate, the higher level of arousal. It makes sense, and it’s a good enough proxy.

Here’s what the arousal to performance relationship looks like visually:

There is a color-based nomenclature made popular by Jeff Cooper from the security & armed defense world:

White = Relaxed, base level arousal as when you’re at home relaxing in front of the television or perusing social media.

Yellow = Low-level arousal, alert and ready. Much like your car when slowly cruising down a quiet residential road with the engine at low RPM

Red = High arousal level, body primed and ready for, or during, strong response to a threatening situation. You know you are feeling pressure and that your body is responding to the perceived threat, and you are highly effective for the most part. You get peak alertness, speed and strength here, but like all peaks you have to be careful you don’t fall off the other side.

Black = Super-high arousal where you’ve fallen off the other side of the peak. You are so amped up it degrades your mental and physical capabilities.

Gray = A slim zone of very high arousal for stress-inoculated individuals, an area that would normally already be in the Black Zone for others. This is an extension of the Red Zone made possible through rigorous, disciplined, methodical training.

Training Delays Black Zone Onset

While we typically apply these zones to personal life-and-death situations, they are transferable to other domains where responders are under high stress.

The general pattern – which most of us have experienced playing sports, in our school studies, presenting on stage, or other endeavors – is that a bit of stress sharpens the mind and body. Eustress. Keep increasing the stress and the mind and body fall off the back side of the edge and you under-perform. Distress.

The human mind and body can become acclimated to many conditions. The internal physiological environment consistent with high levels of acute stress – with its particular neural, hormonal, and cardiovascular conditions – are no exception.

We can acclimate ourselves and our teams to the acute stresses that would otherwise degrade our performance at precisely the times when peak performances are most needed.

Just as an Olympic athlete’s body becomes accustomed to the physical stresses particular to their sport, responders can become accustomed to the range of psychological & physiological stresses particular to their realm.

We can acclimatize to particular stresses. To take a public health analogy, we can inoculate ourselves to the stresses we expect.

Yes, training and practice to develop, sharpen and hone our skills is part of it. The other part is that we become able to function well even under the extreme stress that would otherwise inhibit us. The inoculation of training under stress enables us to perform even when our hearts are racing and adrenaline has dumped into our system.

We extend our zone of competence and ability.

We extend our zone of eustress.

We delay the onset of distress.

We develop a “grey zone”. Physiological measures show we should be in the Black, but yet our performance says otherwise.

However, just as an Olympic athlete’s acclimatization to the stresses particular to their sport may or may not transfer to other sports, so it is with responders to emergencies, crises and urgent situations.

Stress inoculation under one set of conditions may or may not transfer to other sets of conditions.

Inoculate Your People

I’ve written before about incorporating uncertainty and surprises into training and exercises. They accustom our folks – and ourselves – to consider a wide range of variables, not just the obvious routine ones.

There is an immense benefit to deliberately incorporating stress into this our training and exercises. To be sure, it’s for advanced teams. Novices are under sufficient stress just by partaking in the activity. For advanced teams, there is no way to develop and reinforce the ability to operate at enhanced levels under conditions that are literally degrading other than to introduce similar stress into training.

How to do so safely is the challenge we as leaders and trainers must face.

A team that has not previously faced the significant stress they will face in the real deal is an untested team. You won’t know what will happen until it’s too late.

Failing to test your plans, processes, and people under stress means leaving only real responses to reveal deficiencies and potentially provide stress inoculation. That is far from ideal.

Controlled, deliberate circumstances are practical and more effective for developing capabilities.

We gain immunity after surviving real disease. It’s far better to achieve that immunity under controlled conditions with vaccines.

Let us maximize our future performance by incorporating surprises and progressively building in stressors into our training and practice. Let us inoculate ourselves and our people to the physiological and psychological stresses we will face in the scenarios we will respond to. Let us extend the range at which these stresses are for us eustress and delay when they become distress.

It’s the smart thing to do. It’s the Spartan thing to do.

Chess Masters & Pattern Recognition

Chess masters’ brains work differently from the supercomputers specifically designed to beat them. Or, if you play the Asian game of weiqi, same thing. Pattern recognition is the defining product of experience for a human expert.

Knowledge and experience enable you to make better decisions faster. Given the complexity of the real world, we can never make the perfect decision but experience allows us to quickly assess a situation, determine the options available, then decide on a course of action.

Experience allows us to do these things faster and consider factors that have proven to be key in the past because we recognize the patterns at play. You don’t have to consider everything and step through all the logical consequences step by laborious step.

Chess masters play quickly and play well because with one look at the board, the recognize what the current situation is and what is coming. Their minds don’t see the pieces independently. Their minds see the board as a complete whole, and they pay attention to what is missing or what is there that should not be. It is by experience they are able recognize, at a glance, what is going on and what actions are worth considering.

Their experience allows them to quickly decide between those options, with experience telling them the odds of each course panning out as planned. It allows them to recognize within the next move or two whether everything is going as intended or if they need a change of plans. It is their experience that allows them to do this on multiple games at the same time.

Experience Enables Chunking

The experienced mind takes in an entire scene and makes sense of it through the process of chunking.

Let’s use vision as an analogy. When you look at a scene or an image, your eyes receive millions of inputs, from individual photons reflecting off the scene or image and hitting your sensory cells in the retina of your eye. Your eyes process this information. Oh, I see a line here or a line there. So instead of sending you millions of individual “data points”, it sends you something less – let’s say hundreds of thousands for the sake of argument. When this information gets to your brain, your brain recognizes certain combinations of lines as discrete, separate objects. There’s a circle there. Those lines make a square. Those lines angling away tell me there is depth to the object or image. All of that happens subconsciously and let’s say you’re left with thousands of individual elements to make sense of.

Then your brain holistically assesses what the eyes see and says, “I know what all those lines and objects mean. That’s a motorcycle coming down the road headed right for me.” Millions of individual inputs gets translated to that one salient point. All those photons entering your eyes and you automatically figure out what it all means.

What makes an “expert” isn’t so much being brighter or quicker than everyone else, but rather having more experience in an area. An expert knows what he is looking at and, because he has seen similar situations so many times before, he can quickly & effectively respond. – LTC David Grossman

That’s what experience has enabled you to do from what you see every day.

That’s what experience does for you with responding to urgent situations.

Experience enables you to look at a complicated scene and quickly assess what it all means.

Grooming Pattern Recognition Reduces Blind Spots

This summarizing or “chunking” of input into a single, holistic perception of what’s going on isn’t perfect. Our brains trade speed for absolute accuracy.

This is how optical illusions work. Optical illusions play off the way our brains sequentially and subconsciously summarize high volumes of low-level detail into a much smaller, ideally single, summary of what’s going on. Optical illusions use the cues that usually mean one thing – and accurately so – but use it to hide, show, or manipulate what you see so that what you see isn’t what’s really there. They fool you so you see what isn’t so.

That’s a danger that also exists when we assess an emergency situation. We take in all the information presented to us, and through the fast & automatic process of chunking, our brains come to particular conclusions. Those conclusions are usually correct. But sometimes things will throw us off, the conceptual equivalent of optical illusions, and our conclusions are drastically incorrect.

There are mental blind spots and mental tendencies that con artists and unscrupulous marketers take advantage of to sucker us into actions we might not otherwise take.

The same thing can happen in “natural” situations that have occurred on their own without malicious manipulation.

If every time you have seen a combination of elements – ABCDE, let’s say – it has always meant X then the next tie you see ABCDE you will conclude you’re looking at X. But what if that’s because you haven’t noticed and considered FGH and I? Then one day you see ABCDE and it means Y instead of X. They will throw you for a loop either until either someone points out and explains to you that all along you haven’t paid attention to FGHI and that’s what makes the difference… or you figure that out all by yourself.

Give Your People Experience!

I’ve talked before about how powerful it can be to incorporate surprises into the training and exercises you give your team. That’s how you get them to look not only at ABCDE but also at FGHI.

You expand the breadth from which their minds chunk and assess information so they can continue to decide quickly, but in doing so they will avoid nasty surprises because they’ve already chunked and incorporated the subtle warnings.

Let’s take driving, for example.

One of the main reasons new drivers can be dangerous is that they don’t have the experience to anticipate and avoid bad situations. Experienced drivers have seen many other drivers on the road behaving and misbehaving. They can make better assessments & decisions in the same short amount of time.

Experienced drivers, looking at the same information outside the windshield, chunk the information differently. They make different assessments, make different decisions and take different actions. That’s how experienced drivers avoid collisions and situations that might ensnare inexperienced drivers by surprise.

Taking this everyday example into the realm in which our teams work – where lives and businesses are on the line – experience is a key enabler of high performance. Yet, it’s not just repeating the same thing again and again that counts. Someone who has driven the only one short route every day for 20 years isn’t an experienced driver. You need to give your teams a breadth of experience, with surprises thrown in to expand their understanding of the underlying dynamics and expanding their skill.

Performing Smart Requires Training Smart

We don’t become chess masters by playing against the same opponent repeatedly. We become chess masters by playing against different opponents who plan, act, and react differently. Experience with a wide range of situations, combined with reflection and discipline, leads to the ability to make rapid, accurate assessments & decisions.

The best way for us to enable that in ourselves and our teams is through training that develops not just motor memory and greases the mental pathways, but also expands perception and builds the ability to chunk and incorporate a wider range of cues that are often subtle.

The typical training exercise that tests either the knowledge or the ability to follow set procedures and plans is only a starting point. That’s equivalent to driving from Point A to Point B on an empty road in good weather. That’s the beginner level of chess where you know the rules and some classic openings and gambits.

To truly excel, we have to train our teams methodically to perceive quickly and accurately. We have to train the ability to chunk information broadly & deeply, and to do it mostly subconsciously. That takes thought, effort, and dedication from leaders, trainers, and trainees.

If we want to go from Point A to Point B no matter what the roads are like, what other drivers are doing, what the driving conditions are like, we have to train for it.

If we want to perform like chess masters playing and winning multiple games in parallel, we have to train for it.

Performing smart requires training smart – especially when the stakes are more than just titles in the world of competitive chess.

Experience is the best teacher. Or is it?

Experience can lead us to take mental shortcuts that result in making bad decisions. This happens when all our experience leads us to discount certain factors that, if changed, make the whole situation different from what we have experienced. The Challenger Space Shuttle and Grenfell Tower in London are examples that come to mind.

With Challenger, the cooler temperatures in the days preceding the launch were factors unaccounted for in prior Space Shuttle launches.

With Grenfell Tower, the combustible cladding on the building was a factor unaccounted for in prior experience with residential highrise fires.

Experience truly is the best teacher when it comes to making the right decisions promptly. Anyone can make excellent decisions given unlimited time, but nobody in an emergency or urgent situation of any kind has unlimited time. Time is always a factor.

As General Patton said, “A good plan violently executed now is better than a perfect plan executed next week.”

Experience is the bridge between a perfect decision made too late to be useful, and a good decision made within the time available.

We and our teams need the ability to make good decisions, even excellent decisions, promptly. How do we do that while avoiding the pitfall of building mental tunnel vision?

You Will Fight the Way You Train

We hear the phrase, “Train the way you want to fight, and you will fight the way you train.” More accurately, given how our psychology and physiology works, train the way you want to fight because you will fight the way you train. This applies to the fields of emergency management, crisis management, business continuity, and every endeavor where decisive and effective response is needed.

When we are under physical or psychological stress, we will do what we have practiced.

We first need to explore the idea of an “optimal” decision.

There is an optimal decision from the perspective of a disinterested, third-party removed from the situation with the benefit of all available information. This is what “Monday-morning quarterbacks” or “armchair generals” do after the fact when critiquing what others have done.

When we are in a situation that demands a decision that isn’t an option. We don’t have full information and knowing we are under time pressure with serious consequences hanging in the balance changes the way our brains and bodies work.

Under time pressure, which is always present for real-world decisions in the middle of an evolving situation, our minds will not search out the entire space of available options. Our minds will “satisfice”, or choose a “good enough” solution, based on prior experience modified by factors under consideration.

Experience lets us limit the mental search space for a solution. That is what expertise allows a seasoned individual to make good decisions faster than a novice. Experience points you in the right general direction and prompts you to ask the important questions right away. A novice is slower because he or she doesn’t know what avenues are not worth exploring. A novice also doesn’t know what are the key questions to ask to confirm the best option to choose given the time and information available.

Experience lets our minds take mental shortcuts.

The problem in some situations, like with Challenger and Grenfell, is that we aren’t always aware of those shortcuts. We aren’t aware of the assumptions we make when taking those shortcuts.

Train for Surprises by Training with Surprises

Training does not have to always proceed in a linear, predictable fashion. It does not have to be A, B, then C every time. Not only does this get boring for your people and reduces the effect of the training, but it also fails to train in the ability to accommodate and respond to surprises.

We can train the ability to consider and assess more factors and to do so quickly by introducing surprises into training itself. Introduce non-linear elements that seem to come out of the blue. Introduce changes to variables that are unexpected.

This goes beyond the what-if discussions that happen as part of most tabletop exercises. For you as a trainer, for a leader, this is forcing your people to consider what their assumptions have been.

Introduce events in the training that are surprises. However, they cannot be fantasies thrown in with no logical basis. You must introduce surprises that exist because you have “tampered” with one or more factors that your people have always taken for granted.

Consider as an example martial arts sparring and mixed-martial arts, or MMA.

With practioners in a single martial arts discipline, individuals who are sparring against one another know the same skills, know the same patterns, and they expect their opponent to respond to their actions in particular ways. It is predictable. That predictability is part of the point of sparring, which cements in certain patterns of motion, patterns of perception, and patterns of thought.

Part of the appeal of MMA events for both practitioners and spectators is introducing variability. Competitors do not present one another the same patterns of motion, perception, or thought. There can be surprises for participants in a match and for the audience.

Consider as another example, using “Red Team” (or “Blue Team” depending on what country you are in) training with military and security forces. A subset of the organization uses different tactics – different patterns of motion, perception and thought – to face off against those being trained. This gives trainees experience with opponents who don’t move, think, or fight the way they do. They will receive surprises, and that is both intentional and desirable.

As a leader and as a trainer, you will need to use creativity (or the creativity of your people) to introduce surprises into the way you train and exercise.

Where the challenges you face are inanimate forces and objects, you cannot use “Red/Blue Team” or “OPFOR” elements, but you can look into and exploit the assumptions your people use.

For example with Challenger, we now know weather far from extreme can have devastating impacts on safety. Challenge the “conventional” line between significant and insignificant variables.

Likewise with Grenfell, we now know construction elements that appear to be only cosmetic can have devastating impacts on event progression. Challenge assumptions that separate “safe” from “unsafe”, “probable” from “improbable”.

Pattern Recognition

The human brain has powerful pattern recognition abilities. It is why you can read a document rife with spelling mistakes and still understand exactly what the writer meant. It is why you can look at a scene and immediately surmise what happened – that the cat knocked over the vase, the child did exactly what you told him not to do, or which driver made a bad move that caused the collision on the road. Your mind knows how to link the dots presented to it because you’ve seen those dots and patterns before.

When we train ourselves and our people, we need to take advantage of that tremendous strength.

Yet we also want to avoid mental tunnel vision. We need to keep introducing “new dots in the pattern” in our training. Every time you see and understand a new pattern, new options open up, and remain open, in your thinking. You can quickly assess – or ask and assess – another factor that can have a tremendous impact on the outcome.

Will this slow you down? During your training, yes it will, at least initially. Either that or it will lead you and your people to make mistakes. That is intentional. We want to make those mistakes – overlook those factors, make those wrong assumptions – in training and exercises, not in our responses to real events.

Stress Inoculation

We will only introduce the concept of stress inoculation here.

The presence or absence of experience and the ability to look for and accommodate surprises are not the only factors we can address through intelligent training. We can also inoculate our people to stress through the training and exercises we prepare and provide.

Stress affects performance. As we increase stress, we can enhance performance. Our bodies react faster and stronger, our senses and our minds are sharper. But if we keep increasing stress, our physical and mental performance first degrades and then falls apart. The zone in which our stress enhances our abilities can be very narrow.

The intentional and intelligent application of stress during training and exercise – done so in escalating & progressive fashion – extends that zone of enhanced performance. It delays the onset of degradation.

Uncertainty and surprises are a real form of stress. When we introduce surprises into training, and when participants know there are surprises waiting for them, that is a form of intentional stress. As our people get used to looking for and either avoiding or responding effectively to surprises, they experience less stress and are better able to perform under the stress of the unknown.

Get To It

We frequently overlook the difference between training and education because of the terminology we use.

Education imparts knowledge. Knowledge may translate into ability and performance, but it is not a deterministic, guaranteed link between knowledge and performance.

Training develops and enhances skills, abilities, and performance beyond the training environment. Knowledge may be part of how this training accomplishes its objectives. However, once we move away from beginning steps into the realm of advanced practice, we are far more often talking about experiential learning and not just conceptual learning.

The shortfalls in the Challenger and Grenfell Tower situations had nothing to do with knowledge. Engineers at NASA knew what would happen to o-rings in low temperatures. Firefighters arriving at Grenfell Tower knew how fire behaves and how different materials respond.

The shortfalls were untested assumptions that real world or in exercise experience had yet to reveal. These shortcuts born of experience had remained unexamined.

Our aim in training is for our people to respond effectively to emergencies, crises and other urgent situations is not to eliminate the reliance upon experience. Far from it. We want to train in the ability to look for, avoid or effectively respond to surprises.

This is an ability we can develop and improve through training.

It is our responsibility as leaders and as trainers to do exactly that.